Category: Networking

Crossover Cable

The crossover cable can be used to connect  Switch to switch  Hub to hub  Host to host  Hub to switch  Router direct to host   The same four wires are used in this cable as…
Straight-Through Cable

The straight-through cable is used to connect Host to switch or hub Router to switch or hub Four wires are used in straight-through cable to connect Ethernet devices. It is relatively simple to create this type; Figure 1 shows the…
Web Browser

A allows you to sit at one computer and display information that resides in a web server somewhere on the Internet. The information can be in many forms, including simple text, graphics images, animation, video streams, and audio clips. Even…
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Protocol

The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is the most widely used example of a link state routing protocol. It is in wide use as an interior gateway protocol on the Internet and many other networks. The latest version of…
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is the protocol used to suooprt multicasting. To use multicasting, a process on a host must be able to join and leave a group. A process is a user program that is using the network. Group access…

These are the most used Caox cable types RG-58 /U – 50 ohm, with a solid copper wire core. RG-58 A/U* – 50 ohm, with a stranded wire core. RG-58 C/U* – Military version of RG-58 A/U. RG-59 – 75…

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) defined by RFC 792 and RFC 1122 is used for network error reporting and generating messages that require attention. The errors reported by ICMP are generally related to datagram processing. ICMP only reports errors involving…

The UDP header includes: 1. Source port number (16 bits) – An optional field 2. Destination port number (16 bits) 3. UDP length (16 bits) 4. UDP checksum (16 bits) This is followed by data. The UDP checksum includes UDP…

RARP (Reverse address resolution protocol)  is used for diskless computers to determine their IP address using the network. The RARP message format is very similar to the ARP Address Resolution Protocol format. When the booting computer sends the broadcast ARP request, it places…

with Apple brand computers. Most gateways operate at the application layer, but can operate at the network or session layer of the OSI model. Gateways will start at the lower level and strip information until it gets to the required level and repackage…